A Dozen Indian Cities, Including Mumbai and
Chennai, Face Submersion Threat by 2100

A Dozen Indian Cities, Including Mumbai and Chennai, Face Submersion Threat by 2100.

Chennai’s recent devastating flooding, driven by Cyclone Michaung, spotlights the broader vulnerability of Indian cities to climate-induced disasters. In a 48-hour deluge by December 4, 2023, with over 40 cm of rainfall, the city’s plight reveals the urgent need for climate-resilient urban planning. Beyond the immediate impact of the cyclone, Chennai’s recurring flooding exposes challenges tied to inadequate urban planning, poor institutional capacity, and multifaceted factors. The city’s 2015 historic flood served as an earlier warning, emphasizing the consequences of insufficient drainage systems and encroachment on water bodies.

Chennai’s predicament mirrors a nationwide climate vulnerability. Major cities like Kolkata and Mumbai face escalating risks, including sea-level rise, cyclones, and riverine flooding. Densely populated urban centers are already grappling with intensified rainfall, heightened drought risks, and increased flooding. World Bank Group research warns that India, due to its Equator proximity, faces higher sea-level rises, threatening coastal cities with saltwater intrusion, agricultural impact, and waterborne diseases. The IPCC’s 2021 report projects a dire scenario for a dozen Indian cities, including Mumbai, Chennai, Kochi, and Visakhapatnam, potentially submerged by nearly three feet by 2100.

Coastal farming communities already feel the effects, with coastal erosion jeopardizing valuable agricultural areas. Low-lying coastal areas and river deltas face increased flooding, imperiling coastal communities. This vulnerability extends inland. Cities in Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttarakhand have experienced monsoon-triggered flooding and landslides, showcasing nationwide climate challenges. A comprehensive approach is imperative. Strict building code enforcement, anticipatory climate-centric urban planning, coastal embankments, and adherence to Coastal Regulation Zone codes are crucial. Watershed management and ‘sponge cities’ offer avenues to mitigate flood risks.

Initiatives like the Mumbai Climate Action Plan (MCAP) 2022 demonstrate preparedness, but sustained efforts are vital. Improved hydro-meteorological systems, flood warning systems, and proactive adaptation strategies are crucial components of resilient urban planning. Chennai’s recent flooding is a call for collective action. As Indian cities burgeon, the imperative for resilient infrastructure, sustainable urban planning, and unwavering commitment to climate adaptation has never been more pressing. The impact of Cyclone Michaung underscores the urgency of building cities capable of withstanding the unpredictable consequences of a changing climate.

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